Running Ruby on Rails System Tests in GitHub Actions

April 16, 2023

Any software development project will benefit from automated testing, and running those automated tests from a pipeline ensures new functionality isn't broken or breaking other parts of the system. For Ruby on Rails applications, system tests provide end-to-end validation of application features by running a browser and programmatically interacting with the application. In a continuous integration pipeline, we probably don't want to run the interface (as that's slower and nobody can see it) of our browser during automated testing. Moreover, we want to invoke it via the command line in our CI environment. So, we can set up Capybara to use headless Chrome to solve this for us.

How do I configure this in my app?

Register a new Selenium driver and configure it to be the driver for each system test in our CI environment:

# spec/support/capybara.rb

is_ci = ENV.fetch('IS_CI', false)

Capybara.register_driver :headless_chrome do |app|
  options =
    args: %w[headless no-sandbox disable-gpu disable-dev-shm-usage],
    binary: '/usr/bin/google-chrome'
    browser: :chrome,

RSpec.configure do |config|
  if is_ci
    config.before(:each, type: :system) do
      driven_by :headless_chrome

Then, require it from our rails_helper.rb:

# spec/rails_helper.rb

require 'capybara/rspec'
require 'support/capybara'


In your test step, set IS_CI to be true either from your repository environment variables or from your CI pipeline directly:

- name: Run ruby tests
    IS_CI: true
    RAILS_ENV: test
    PGHOST: localhost
    POSTGRES_DB: rails_github_actions_test
    POSTGRES_USER: rails_github_actions
    PGPORT: ${{[5432] }}
  run: rspec

The IS_CI environment variable lets us toggle between using the headless driver and not. This allows us to still see the browser during local runs of the system test suite, which can help with authoring and debugging the tests. You can explore the surrounding code in one of my hobby projects.

A bug I encountered

While trying to invoke rspec in my GitHub Actions environment, the following error occurred for each system test:

    unknown error: Chrome failed to start: exited abnormally.
      (unknown error: DevToolsActivePort file doesn't exist)
      (The process started from chrome location /usr/bin/google-chrome is no longer running, so ChromeDriver is assuming that Chrome has crashed.)

This was solved by adding the no-sandbox argument to Selenium::WebDriver::Chrome::Options hash.

A detailed explanation can be found from this stackoverflow answer.

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Written by Mavrick Laakso. He is an experienced software developer with eight years of technical experience. Find him on LinkedIn, GitHub, or via email.

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